绿色住宅 ,意大利, Carlo Ratti Associati

The Greenary是一个围绕着房子中心的一棵十米高的树而建的住宅。多个居住区环绕着树的枝叶,一直延伸到树的顶端。这座房子位于意大利北部的乡村,由欧洲领先的番茄相关产品生产商Mutti公司的首席执行官Francesco Mutti委托设计。该项目推进了CRA对融合建筑、自然元素和先进技术解决方案的新方式的研究。

The Greenary is a residence that revolves around a ten-meter-tall tree at the center of the house. Multiple living quarters encircle the tree’s leafy branches, all the way up to its top. Located in the Northern Italian countryside, the house was commissioned by Francesco Mutti, CEO of Mutti, the European leading producer of tomato-related products. The project advances CRA’s research into new ways of fusing architecture, natural elements, and advanced technological solutions.

Greenary(”绿色-格兰纳里 “的文字游戏)是在帕尔马市外的一个传统意大利农舍中建造的,它响应了生物亲和力的概念,这是著名生物学家和哈佛大学教授E.O.威尔逊提出的科学假设,它表明人类有一种与生俱来的接近自然的愿望。这一概念在生活空间中间那棵名为阿尔玛的60岁榕树上得到了最充分的体现。它属于一种叫做澳洲榕的树种,一年四季都享有稳定的温度,因此非常适合室内生活条件。它的近亲ficus religiosa被佛教徒尊称为菩提树,释迦牟尼就是在这棵树下开悟的,而ficus microcarpa则装饰着整个中国南方的古老公园。

Built out of a traditional Italian farmhouse outside the city of Parma, the Greenary (a wordplay of “green-granary”) responds to the idea of biophilia, a scientific hypothesis proposed by noted biologist and Harvard professor E.O. Wilson, which suggests that human beings share an innate desire to live close to nature. This concept is foremost expressed in the 60-year-old ficus tree named Alma standing in the middle of the living space. It belongs to a species called ficus australis that enjoys stable temperatures all year long and is thus well-suited for indoor living conditions. Its close relative ficus religiosa is venerated by Buddhists as the Bodhi tree, under which Siddhartha achieved enlightenment, while ficus microcarpa adorns the ancient parks across Southern China.

为了给这棵树创造理想的生长环境,CRA完全重新设计了旧的农舍,以最大限度地利用自然光,安装了一个十米高的朝南玻璃墙。该设计利用技术和周围地区的微气候来控制温度和湿度,使树和家里的人能够舒适地生活在一起。窗户和屋顶都可以自动打开和关闭,以调整进入房屋的阳光和新鲜空气的数量。

To create the ideal setting for the tree to thrive, CRA has completely redesigned the old farmhouse to maximize natural light, installing a ten-meter-tall, south-facing glass wall. The design harnesses technology and the micro-climate of the surrounding area to control the temperature and humidity, so that the tree and the home’s occupants can live together comfortably. Both the windows and the roof can be opened and closed automatically to adjust the amount of sunlight and fresh air entering the house.

Greenary由七个梯形空间组成,其中三个在入口上方,三个在入口下方。这些充满活力、相互联系的房间重新诠释了20世纪建筑师阿道夫-卢斯的Raumplan原则–以自然为核心。到达后,居民和来访者下到一米高的主起居区和厨房,这使他们与外面的田园牧歌平视。房子的其他楼层被设想成一个自然灵感的旅程,在整个旅程中,树是一个突出的支柱。在整个室内空间中,自然也以其他形式被纳入其中,例如在地板上融入了土壤和橘子皮。

The Greenary consists of seven terraced spaces, with three among them above the entrance and three below it. These dynamic, interconnected rooms reinterpret 20th-century architect Adolf Loos’ principle of the Raumplan – with nature at its core. Upon arrival, residents and visitors descend one meter to the main living area and the kitchen, which puts them at eye level with the idyllic meadow outside. The other levels of the house were conceived to form a naturally-inspired journey, throughout which the tree serves as a prominent pillar. Nature is also incorporated in other forms throughout the interior space, such as in flooring that incorporates soil and orange peels.

“20世纪的意大利建筑师卡罗-斯卡帕曾经说过,’在树和房子之间,选择树。虽然我对他的观点有共鸣,但我认为我们可以更进一步,把两者放在一起,”CRA的创始合伙人、麻省理工学院的教授Carlo Ratti说。”CRA的许多工作都集中在自然和人工世界的交叉点上。通过Greenary,我们正试图想象一个围绕着自然和它的节奏建立的新的家庭景观”。

“The 20th-century Italian architect Carlo Scarpa once said, ‘Between a tree and a house, choose the tree.’ While I resonate with his sentiment, I think we can go a step further and put the two together,” says Carlo Ratti, founding partner of CRA and professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “Much of CRA’s work focuses on the intersection between the natural and artificial worlds. With the Greenary, we are trying to imagine a new domestic landscape built around nature and its rhythm.”

这座房子建在一个横跨2.5公顷的场地上。除了主要的住宅单元,CRA还将房子后面的一个粮仓改造成了一个工作区。在这两座建筑的周围,有一个由著名景观设计师Paolo Pejrone培育的花园,以庆祝当地地区的生物多样性。

The house was built on a site that spans over 2.5 hectares. Apart from the main residential unit, CRA also converted a granary at the back of the house into a workspace. Surrounding both buildings, a garden cultivated by renowned landscape designer Paolo Pejrone celebrates the biodiversity of the local region.

Architects: Carlo Ratti Associati
Year: 2021
Photographs: Delfino Sisto Legnani and Alessandro Saletta from DSL Studio
Lead Architect: Carlo Ratti
Creative Lead:Italo Rota
Partner In C:Andrea Cassi
Project Manager:Francesco Strocchio
Design Team:Alberto Benetti, Mario Daudo, Serena Giardina, Anna Morani, Gerolamo Gnecchi Ruscone, Giovanni Trogu, Matteo Zerbi
Agronomy Consultants:Flavio Pollano and Paolo Battistel (Ceres srl)
Authority Approval, Accouting, Health & Safety Lead:Aldo Trombi
Planning And Works Supervisor:AI Studio
Landscape Design:Paolo Pejrone with Alberto Fusari
Garden Cultivation:Arcadia Vivai Impianti
Mep Engineering:AI Studio
Facade:AI Studio
Construction Unit:AeC costruzioni
City:Parma
Country:Italy

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