Holy Redeemer 教堂及社区中心 ,西班牙, Fernando Menis

社区事务。神圣救世主教堂的建设花了很多年,超过了15年,它与Las Chumberas的改造过程相重叠,Las Chumberas是一个由670个住宅组成的社区,从20世纪70年代开始,被组织成42个街区,后来又增加了购物中心和工业建筑。在项目发起人特内里费主教以及赞助人和居民的一直支持下,梅尼斯将教堂设想为城市和社会变化的必要催化剂,而这些变化正在该地区发生。在他的设想中,新的建筑应该在没有地方的地方创造一个地方,并有助于赋予拉斯-昌巴斯一个自己的身份,在混乱的城市结构中建立一个参考空间。由此产生的大院包括一个教堂、一个社区中心和一个被绿色植物环绕的公共广场,也就是说,一个邻里之间需要的公共聚会场所。

Community matters. The construction of The Holy Redeemer Church took many years, more than fifteen and it has overlapped with the transformation process of Las Chumberas, which is a neighborhood of 670 homes from the 1970s, organized into 42 blocks, to which were later added shopping centers and industrial buildings. Supported at all times by the Bishopric of Tenerife, initiator of the project, as well as patrons and residents, Menis conceived the Church as a necessary catalyst for the urban and social changes that were taking place in the neighborhood. In his vision, the new building should create a place where there was none, and contribute to giving Las Chumberas an identity of its own, establishing itself as a reference space in a confusing urban fabric. The resulting compound includes a Church, a community center, and a public square surrounded by greenery, that is, a public meeting place that the neighborhood needed.

该建筑也是一个集体行动的例子,因为工程的资金是通过各种组织、许多邻居和一些致力于他们出生和成长的社区的商人的捐赠进行的。汇款的不平衡节奏实际上决定了项目的建设性逻辑及其后续执行:一个由四个独立模块及其周围环境组成的大院,已经分阶段交付。社区中心位于四个模块中的两个,于2008年完工,此后一直在使用,同时等待为其余工程筹集必要的资金。

The building is also an example of collective action since the financing of the works has been carried out through donations from various organizations, many neighbors, and some businessmen committed to the neighborhood where they were born and grew. The uneven rhythm of remittances is in fact what has determined the constructive logic of the project and its subsequent execution: a compound made up of four independent modules plus their surroundings, which has been delivered in phases. The community center, housed in two of the four volumes, was completed in 2008 and has been in use ever since while waiting to raise the necessary funds for the rest of the works.

用混凝土和石头的低技术创新。这座建筑的灵感来自于火山岛的地质学,它被嵌入地面,其四个巨大的体量就像巨大的不安分的岩石一样耸立。裸露的混凝土的粗糙质地与它所处的传统住宅环境形成了鲜明的对比。这就像在郊区发生的地质现象,就像大自然在与平庸作斗争。它的石化体量被狭窄的裂缝隔开,裂缝中充满了金属和玻璃制成的雕塑结构,日光通过这些裂缝进入建筑,配置了一个朴素而呆板的院落,放弃了所有多余的元素。

Low-tech innovation with concrete and Stone. The building, inspired by the geology of the volcanic island, is embedded in the ground and rises with its four massive volumes resembling large restless rocks. The rough texture of the exposed concrete strikes a sharp contrast with the conventional residential context where it goes up. It is as if a geological phenomenon had occurred on the outskirts as if nature were fighting against banality. Its petrous volumes are separated by narrow cracks filled with sculptural structures made of metal and glass, through which daylight enters the building to configure an austere and stark compound, which relinquishes all superfluous elements.

日光通过切口向下过滤,形成一个自由流动和内敛的空隙,并通过强调基督教的每项圣礼,在弥撒中发挥重要作用。日出时分,光线从十字架上射入,如瀑布般充满祭坛后面的空间,象征着耶稣基督被埋葬的洞穴的入口,并照亮了洗礼池,这是基督徒的第一道光。祭坛、坚信礼和圣餐在中午时分通过天窗接受光线。后来,一束光落在忏悔室上。天窗的战略布局在洗礼、婚姻和圣职方面也达到了同样的效果。

Daylight filters down through the cuts to shape a free-flowing and introverted void and to play an essential role in mass by stressing each of the Christian sacraments. At sunrise, the light comes in through the cross as a cascade of light that fills the space behind the altar to symbolize the entrance to the cave in which Jesus Christ was buried and illuminating the baptismal font, the first light of a Christian. The altar, the confirmation, and the communion receive light at noon through the skylight. Later, a shaft of light falls on the confessional. The strategic layout of the skylights achieves the same effect on unction, matrimony, and priesthood.

在这座建筑中使用混凝土作为主要材料,同时解决了几个方面的问题:外部、内部、结构、形式、物质和纹理。首先,它是一种常见的材料,可以在当地获得,这使得建筑师只与当地公司和材料合作,符合梅尼斯坚持的Km 0建筑原则。其次,由于混凝土的各向同性,它的能源效率在这里被厚实的墙体的热惯性所加强。

The use of concrete as the main material in this building addresses several aspects at the same time: exterior, interior, structure, form, matter, and texture. First of all, it is a common material, accessible locally, which allows the architect to work only with local companies and materials, in accordance with the Km 0 architecture principles to which Menis adheres. Second, the energy efficiency provided by concrete, due to its isotropic nature, is enhanced here by the thermal inertia of the thick solid walls.

最后,正如他的CKK Jordanki文化、音乐和会议厅(2015年,波兰)或Magma艺术和会议中心(2007年,特内里费岛)一样,Menis在这里对混凝土的声学潜力进行了实验,并打破了混凝土在声学上不如其他材料(如木材)的普遍看法。在声学方面,混凝土在这里有两种使用方式:在扩散方面,使用传统的裸露混凝土,而在吸收方面,将之前与轻质多孔火山石(picón)混合的裸露混凝土的表面削去。这样实现的声学效果类似于歌剧中常见的声学效果,适合于说话和唱歌,是结合教会和社会功能的建筑的理想设计。

Finally, as in his CKK Jordanki Culture, Music and Congress Hall (2015, Poland), or Magma Art and Congress Center (2007, Tenerife), Menis experiments here with the acoustic potential of the concrete and demystifies the common belief that the concrete is acoustically inferior to other materials such as wood. In terms of acoustics, concrete has been used here in two ways: for diffusion, conventional exposed concrete was used, while for absorption, the surface of the exposed concrete previously mixed with light porous volcanic stone (picón) was chipped. The acoustics thus achieved resemble the usual in the opera, suitable for speech and song, ideally designed for a building that combines ecclesiastical and social functions.

信仰与形式国际宗教艺术和建筑奖。当Las Chumberas的神圣救世主教堂和社区中心仍在建设中时,纽约现代艺术博物馆当时的首席建筑策展人Barry Bergdoll参观了该项目,并将其纳入MoMA的建筑收藏。十年后,该建筑获得了 “信仰与形式国际宗教艺术和建筑奖 “的 “宗教建筑 “荣誉奖。该奖项由来自世界各地的92个项目争夺,其中共有来自美国、日本、中国、泰国、卢旺达和西班牙的16个作品入选。颁奖典礼将于2022年6月23日在芝加哥举行,在美国建筑师协会的年会上进行。

Faith & Form International Award for Religious Art and Architecture. While still under construction, the Holy Redeemer Church and Community Centre of Las Chumberas was visited by Barry Bergdoll, then Chief Curator of Architecture at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, who included the project in the MoMA architecture collection. A decade later, the building receives an Honor Award from the Faith & Form International Award for Religious Art and Architecture within the `Religious Architecture: New Facilities´ category in an edition disputed by 92 projects from around the world, of which a total of 16 works have been selected, from United States, Japan, China, Thailand, Rwanda, and Spain. The awards ceremony will take place on the 23rd of June 2022, in Chicago, within AIA’s annual convention.

作为历史最悠久的建筑奖项之一,”信仰与形式国际宗教艺术和建筑奖 “自1978年以来每年举办一次,旨在表彰世界上所有宗教的最佳神圣建筑和礼仪艺术。奖项分为五个类别。宗教建筑、室内/礼仪设计、神圣景观、神圣艺术和未建项目。关于神圣救世主教堂,评委会的评论是 “这是了不起的工作。它看起来就像石块被凿空了一样,在光线和纹理的使用中创造了精神空间。它创造了亲密感和温暖感。室内的表面也增强了声学效果。结构部件是有表现力的。对声学和采光有特别的关注”。

One of the longest-running architecture awards, the Faith & Form International Award for Religious Art and Architecture has been held annually since 1978 with the aim of honoring the world’s best in sacred architecture and liturgical art from all religions. Prizes are awarded in five categories: Religious Architecture, Interior/ Liturgical Design, Sacred Landscape, Sacred Art, and Unbuilt Project. About the Holy Redeemer Church, the jury comments: “This is amazing work. It appears as if blocks of stone have been chiseled and hollowed out to create spiritual spaces in their use of light and texture. It creates intimacy and warmth. The interior surfaces also enhance the acoustics. Structural components are expressive. There is particular attention on acoustics and daylighting”.

Architects: Fernando Menis
Area : 1050 m²
Year : 2021
Photographs :Patri Cámpora, Simona Rota
Manufacturers : Zumtobel, CEMEX España, PERI Spain
Architect : Fernando Menis
Design Team : “Babak Asadi, Juan Bercedo, María Berga, Roberto Delgado, Javier Espílez, Andrés Ferrer, Niels Heinrich, Joanna Makowska Czerska, Paula Manzano, Natalia Pyzio, Raúl Rivera, Gerardo Rodríguez, Esther Senís, Andreas Weihnacht, Julia Zasada ”
Draftsman : Yanira León
Structure : Juan José Gallardo
Acoustics : Pedro Cerdá/i2A ACOUSTIC&AUDIOVISUAL ENGINEERING
HVAC : J. Oliver Oliva Alonso/ DUAL INGENIEROS, José Ángel Marrero/NUEVA TERRAIN, Fernando Javier Hernández/ PRISMA INGENIEROS
Quantity Surveyors : Rafael Hernández, Andrés Pedreño, Ruperto Santiago Hernández
Construction Companies : “CONSTRUCCIONES CAROLINA, CONSTRUCCIONES ÁTICO (Mercedes Suárez, Francisco José Tejera), SOLVENTIA INGENIERÍA Y CONSTRUCCIÓN. ”
City : San Cristobal de La Laguna
Country : Spain