Jadgal 小学,伊朗,Daaz Office

项目历史 – 该项目是一个名为Iran-e-Man的非政府组织公开呼吁以可持续发展的方式建造一所学校,该组织在学校建设领域已经工作了几年,另一方面,Seyedbar-Jadgal村(距离Chabahar 100公里)的人民和青年要求该机构在他们的村庄建造一所学校。因此,建筑设计团队和项目主持人自愿开始设计和监督项目建设过程。最初,该团队在该村和该地区进行了数月的建筑和社会研究。通过参与式的方式,确定了村庄和原住民的需求和不足、潜力和能力,并对其进行了专题研究和优先排序。

Project History – The project is a public call for the Construction of a school with a sustainable development approach by a non-governmental organization called Iran-e- Man, which has been working in the field of school construction for several years and on the other hand, the request of the people and youth of Seyedbar-Jadgal village (100 km from Chabahar) from this institution to build a school in their village. As a result, the architectural design team and project facilitators voluntarily began designing and supervising the project construction process. Initially, the team carried out architectural and social studies in the village and the region for several months. In a participatory way, the needs and shortcomings, potentials, and capacities of villages and indigenous peoples were identified, themed, and prioritized.

考虑到这个项目的预算有限,而且只能靠人们的捐赠来建设,我们没有计划 “建设和捐赠 “的方案,而是选择了一种参与式的建设方法,以促进可持续发展,产生社会、经济和文化基础设施。因此,我们设计了一所学校,其理念是成为村庄和其附属社区的发展中心。这样一来,学校就成了孩子们的教育场所,也成了村子里每个人的聚集点和学习点。

Considering that this project had a limited budget and was to be built only by people’s donations, we did not plan “a build and donate” scenario and instead opted for a participation method of Construction that would promote sustainable development and produce social, economic, and cultural infrastructures. As a result, we designed a school with the idea of becoming the village and its dependent communities’ development center. In this way, the school was a place of education for children and a point of gathering and learning for everybody in the village.

为了实现这个想法,在与社会促进者的合作下,开展了一些基本工作,如做小组工作,邀请村民维护村庄的卫生和清洁,建立化粪池,建立一个针线活车间和一个Instagram页面–称为@Banook,以展示和销售针线活产品。通过这种方式,该村的妇女参与了社会活动。然而,这也促进了她们在村里的社会和经济领域的存在,并帮助妇女在社会上被视为更有效。此外,为了配合社会参与的发展方法,村里的人作为工地工人帮助建造学校。但这并不是他们所做的全部,因为村里的家庭在经济上做出了贡献,通过出售针线活来帮助学校实现。这样一来,学校就在公众的参与下建成了,并获得了村里所有人的好感。

In order to materialize this idea and in cooperation with social facilitators, some fundamental works such as doing group work, inviting villagers to maintain the hygiene and cleanliness of the village, building septic sewage, and setting up a needlework workshop and an Instagram page -called @Banook to showcase and sell needlework products- were undertaken. In this way, the women of the village were engaged in social activities. However, it also promoted their presence in the social and economic realms of the village and helped women to be socially seen as more effective. In addition, in coordination with the social participation method of development, people of the village helped by working as site laborers to build the school. But that was not all they did as the village families contributed financially and helped by selling needlework for the school to materialize. This way, the school was built by public participation and gained the goodwill of everyone in the village.

目前,除了教育功能外,这所学校还有其他功能,如节假日和晚上的儿童游乐区,村民及其家人的聚会场所,集体看电影和足球的地方,图书馆,以及旅游住所。学校由村民和教师组成的团队管理和维护,旅游和针纺织品部分的部分收入用于维护学校。通过这种方式,学校是在村民的参与下建成的,并最终得到维护。

At present, apart from the educational function, this school has other functions such as a children’s play area on holidays and nights, a gathering place for villagers and their families, a place to watch movies and football in groups, a library, and a tourist residence. The school is managed and maintained by a team of villagers and teachers, and part of the income from the tourism and needlework sections is spent on its maintenance. In this way, the school is built with the participation of the villagers and is eventually maintained.

项目描述–Seyedbar村的学校占地470平方米,一层楼,包括四个小学班级,能够相互结合和重叠,一个图书馆,一个多功能厅,可以作为会议室、车间或考场,以及主要和次要的游乐场,其设计目标是成为村庄的社区中心和教育其全体人口。

Project Description – Seyedbar Village’s school, covering 470 sqm in one floor, consists of four elementary classes with the ability to combine and overlap with each other, a library, a multi-function hall working as a conference room, workshop, or exam hall, and main and secondary play yards that are designed while aiming to become the village’s community center and educate its whole population.

考虑到这个村子的学生与教师的关系,并通过遵守学校的装修规范,学校需要四个班。在设计班级时,每两个大小不一的班级都是相互连接的。在最大的一类中,有一个中间空间,使低年级学生能够加入大班,利用单个教师的培训,由于教学人员的限制,这是必要的,同时也给他们一个空间与高年级学生接触。

Considering the population of the students in relation to teachers in this village, and through adhering to school renovation codes, the school needed four classes. In designing the classes, each two-class varying in size were connected to each other. In the largest category, there is an intermediate space that enables the younger students to join the larger class, taking advantage of the training of one single teacher, necessary due to the limitation of teaching personnel, as well as giving them a space to engage with senior students.

材料、施工和技术–根据伊朗学校建设立法机构和控制机构的学校改造规范,以及建设抗震结构的必要性,学校的结构采用了ICF方法,即绝缘混凝土模板。通过利用聚苯乙烯板(EPS)、镀锌铁型材和钢筋混凝土,在没有任何柱子的情况下建造了该结构–感谢设计的曲线型模板。最后应用的涂层是一种由水泥和当地土壤组成的半本地材料,称为Simgel,可以防止因洪水和过多的雨水而生锈,并与周围的颜色和纹理形成和谐。而在破坏或开裂的情况下,它可以很容易地由村民修复。

Material, Construction, And technology – In alliance with the school renovation codes by the Legislative Institution and Control of School Construction in Iran and the necessity of building earthquake-resistant structures, the school’s structure was constructed with the ICF method, Insulating Concrete Formwork. By utilizing polystyrene panels (EPS), galvanized iron profiles, and reinforced concrete, the structure was constructed without any columns- thanks to the design’s curvilinear forms. The final coating layer that was applied is a semi-local material consisting of cement and local soil called Simgel that prevents rusting due to floods and excessive rain and creates harmony with the surrounding colors and textures. And In case of destruction or cracking, it can be easily repaired by the villagers.

项目的意义和影响–学校操场的圆形形式和班级的排列方式形成了教育的重点概念,意味着 “共同学习”–没有等级制度和民主风格。班级布局的旋转,同时将他们的角落连接起来,使班级之间的空气流通,并产生小的二级院子,用于做一些小组工作和户外活动。因此,通过这个空间图,我们在学校中间获得了一个中央的主院子,作为学童和乡村居民的集合点,在班级周围和厚实的穿墙和教室之间有一个圆形空间,以及私人院子。

Project Significance and Impact – The circular form of the schoolyard and the way classes are arranged formed with the focal concept of education, meaning “learning together”- void of hierarchical systems and in a democratic style. The rotation of the class layout while connecting them on their corners allows for air circulation between the classes and produces small secondary yards for doing some group work and outdoor activities. Consequently, with this spatial diagram, we gained a central primary yard in the middle of the school as an assembly point for school children and village residents, a circular space around classes and between the thick penetrated wall and classrooms, as well as private yards.

围墙的概念在传统上被理解为保护者、分离者,一般代表砖石建造的防护装置。然而在这个项目中,通过学校独特的位置,处于一个相对平坦的广阔场地中间,学校的墙被当作一个穿透性的邀请性的外壳。墙内的开口是这样安排的:从班级里的一个座位上的人的角度,可以看到周围平原的延伸。这些开口具有不同的尺寸和形状,为学生提供了到达学校的多个入口。此外,通过增加这堵连续而又穿透的墙的厚度,建筑的一些基本功能,如小卖部、学校警卫室和储藏室被安置起来,而主入口则被强调,获得了深度,并吸引人们进入。

The concept of a surrounding wall is traditionally understood as protector, separator and generally stands for a masonry-built guarding device. In this project, however, through the school’s unique location, being in the middle of a relatively flat vast field, the school wall was treated as a penetrated inviting playful shell. The openings within the wall are arranged so that from the point of view of a seating person in the class, the extension of the surrounding plain can be seen. Having various sizes and shapes, these openings provide students with multi entrances to arrive at the school. Moreover, by increasing the thickness of this continuous yet penetrated wall, some essential functions of the building such as a tuck shop, a school guard’s room, and a storeroom were housed while the main entrance was emphasized, gaining depth and inviting people within.

在设计这所学校时,我们将教育设想为一个辩证的、双边的、参与性的概念,因此,作为这些想法的平台的传统学校空间以这种方式被改造:将学校的墙从 “分离器 “转换为一个壳结构,作为一个穿透性的无边界游戏皮肤,邀请人们聚集,鼓励社区文化,同时加强人们之间的交流。这种转变是为了破坏等级制度,加强质疑文化,照亮上学的最基本意义,即 “在一起”。总之,我们的目标是创建一所学校,使之成为培养创造力、自由和批判性思维的巢穴。

In designing this school, we envisioned education as a dialectic, bilateral, participatory driven concept, and accordingly, the conventional school spaces that act as platforms of these ideas were transformed in this manner: converting school wall from “separator” to a shell structure that performs as a penetrated borderless playful skin that invites people to gather and encourages the community culture while reinforcing communication between people. This transformation was performed in order to destroy hierarchy and strengthen questioning culture, shining a light on the most basic meaning of going to school, which is “being together”. In conclusion, we aimed to create a school that is a nest for nurturing creativity, freedom, and critical thinking.

项目开始时,我们努力改变村民的智力和社会层次,赋予农村妇女权力,创造公众参与,并将其变成建设学校的杠杆。最后,通过挑战学校存在的自由意志和强制力之间的边界(墙)的政治和社会概念–在一个传统上由暴政主导的社会中,它能够压倒大多数村民的精神多数–他们最初反对建造墙,并使学校成为街区的中心和所有居民的聚会。在向民主过渡的过程中影响建筑的一项练习。

The project started with an effort to change the villagers’ intellectual and social layers, empower rural women, create public participation, and turn it into a lever in building a school. Finally, by challenging the political and social concept of the boundary (The Wall) between free will and coercion in the presence of the school – in a society traditionally dominated by tyranny – it was able to overwhelm the mental majority of most villagers – who initially opposed the Construction of the wall and make the school the center of the neighborhood and gathering of all residents. An exercise to influence architecture in the transition to democracy.

Architects: Daaz Office
Area: 480 m²
Year: 2020
Photographs: Deed Studio
Lead Architect: Arash Aliabadi
Client:Iraneman Organization
Project Architects:Mahsa Hosseini, Nazanin Mojahed
Social Facilitator:Mina Kamran
Structure Design:A. Giahi
Project Manager:Mehran Goodarzyar
Contractor:A. Noghrehkar
Mechanical And Electrical:A. Delavar
Architects:Daaz Office
City:Seyyed Bar
Country:Iran