砖厂博物馆的窑炉塔 ,瑞士, Boltshauser Architekten

砖厂今天由砖厂博物馆经营,是瑞士德语区唯一保存完好的手工砖厂。列入名录的建筑群包括一个木制晒砖棚、一个可能不再运行的窑炉、历史上的粘土坑的生物群落、一个带花园的住宅楼以及一个取代烧毁的谷仓的博物馆建筑。2017年,慕尼黑工业大学客座教授的学生致力于在该地设计一个新的窑塔。该预应力土木结构直接基于在Sitterwerk进行的模拟,是世界上第一个预应力土木建筑。

The brickworks, that is run today by the Brickworks Museum, is the only intact surviving handmade brickworks in German-speaking Switzerland. The listed ensemble consists of a timber brick-drying shed, a kiln, that may no longer be operated, the biotope of the historical clay pit, a residential building with gardens, and a museum building that replaces a burned-down barn. In 2017 students of the guest professorship at the TU Munich worked on the task of designing a new kiln tower on the site. The prestressed earth-and-timber structure is based directly on the mock-up carried out at the Sitterwerk and is the world’s first prestressed earth building.

该建筑材料呈现出粘土的未烧制形式,并展示了用夯土建造的古老方法的当代发展。新的塔楼允许游客在大约8米高的观景台上勘察现场,并使工作人员能够用新的窑炉再次烧制砖块。此外,还将创造一个空间来展示其他博物馆的展品。

The building material presents clay in its unfired form and demonstrates a contemporary development of the archaic method of building with rammed earth. The new tower allows visitors to survey the site from atop the roughly eight-meter-high viewing platform and enables the staff to fire bricks again with the new kiln. In addition, a space will be created for displaying other museum exhibits.

与窑炉相邻的展览室有一个坚实的、加固的木材天花板。它的特点是由土的存在和最后的窑墙的纪念性来定义。由于预应力元件在其前面的开放缝隙,参观者可以体验到夯土墙的整体坚固性,这与拉杆的精致性形成了对比。简单的钢架可以连接到这些上面,以容纳展览板或展品。一个钢制的螺旋楼梯提供了通往屋顶上的观察平台的通道。

The exhibition room with the adjoining kiln has a solid, stiffening timber ceiling. Its character is defined by the presence of the earth and the monumentality of the concluding kiln wall. Thanks to the light slits of the open joints, in front of which the prestressing elements run, visitors can experience the whole solidity of the rammed earth walls, that contrasts with the delicacy of the tension bars. Simple steel frames can be attached to these to hold exhibition panels or exhibits. A steel spiral staircase provides access to the viewing platform on the roof.

使用夯土元素的建筑并不新鲜,但块状物之间的接缝,其大小取决于运输和组装的条件,通常是在事后耗费时间的手工填充。这就消除了用预制构件建造的痕迹,这成为这个实验性建筑的主题,它试图通过结构创新来提高建筑过程的效率和稳定性。第一个创新是前面提到的预应力,它使该系统能够抵抗地震载荷。只能承受压缩荷载的土和抗拉钢是一个完美的组合。第二个创新是将木质元素底板整合到墙体结构中。在现场的板子上安装了防雨滴,以保护泥土不受侵蚀,并说明了连接原理。

Building with rammed earth elements is not new, but the joints between blocks, whose size depends on conditions of transportation and assembly, are usually time-consumingly hand-filled afterward. This eliminates the traces of building with prefabricated elements, which become the theme of this experimental architecture which seeks to increase the efficiency of the building process and stability by means of structural innovations. The first innovation is the aforementioned prestressing which makes the system resistant to earthquake loads. The earth, which can only withstand compressive loads, and the tensile steel are a perfect match. The second innovation is the integration of the timber element base plates into the wall structure. A weather drip is installed on the plates on site to protect the earth from erosion and illustrate the joining principle.

项目的科学监测是对研究夯土的一个贡献。瑞士每年挖掘出六千多万吨的土和粘土,其中大部分用于填埋砂砾坑。找到使用这种未开发资源的新方法,将是对替代混凝土和砖等能源密集型建筑材料的重要贡献。与传统的建筑方法相比,这将使新建筑的内含能源节省高达40%。

The scientific monitoring of the project is a contribution to researching the rammed earth. More than sixty million tons of earth and clay are excavated in Switzerland every year, most of which is used to landfill gravel pits. Finding new ways to use this unexploited resource would be an important contribution to substituting energy-intensive building materials such as concrete and bricks. Compared with conventional building methods, this would enable embodied energy savings of up to forty percent in new builds.

Architects: Boltshauser Architekten
Area: 60 m²
Year: 2021
Photographs: Kuster Frey
Manufacturers: Jakob, Ineichen, KIBAG, Keller Unternehmungen, LEHMAG AG, Nüssli, Terrabloc, Ziegelei Schumacher
Structural Engineer: SEFORB Sarl
Lighting Consultant: Reflexion AG
Civil Engineer: Kibag
Project Leader:Felix Hilgert
Construction Management:Giuseppe Pascoli
Intern:Léon Bührer, Miklós Doma, Yves Péclard
Student Tu Munich:Regina Pötzinger, Robert Gentner
General Planner, Quantity Surveyor, Site Supervision:Boltshauser Architekten AG, Zurich
Rammed Earth Consultant:LEHMAG AG
City:Cham
Country:Switzerland

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注