马丁路德金纪念图书馆 ,美国, Mecanoo & OTJ Architects

经过荷兰建筑公司Mecanoo与OTJ建筑事务所合作的三年改造,马丁-路德-金纪念图书馆(MLKL)在华盛顿特区重新开放。该图书馆于1972年开放,作为一个当代终身学习的中心,向所有社区开放,重新获得新生。它是唯一由二十世纪最伟大的建筑师之一路德维希-密斯-凡德罗设计的图书馆,随后以1968年被暗杀的高大民权领袖金博士命名。Mecanoo的负责人、创始合伙人和创意总监Francine Houben说:”我们一直以马丁-路德-金的永恒价值为指导,并在这个美国首都人民最重要的图书馆中实施这些价值”。

After a three-year transformation by Dutch architecture firm Mecanoo, working in collaboration with OTJ Architects, the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library (MLKL) has re-opened in Washington D.C. The library, which opened in 1972, is reborn as a contemporary lifelong-learning hub that reaches out to all communities. It was the only library designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, one of the twentieth century’s greatest architects, and was subsequently named after Dr. King, the towering civil rights leader who was assassinated in 1968. Francine Houben, principal, founding partner, and creative director of Mecanoo, says: “We have been guided by Martin Luther King’s timeless values and implemented them in this, the most important library for the people of America’s capital”.

向密斯和金的遗产致敬。MLKL的改造在各个层面带来了一个新的人文环境,为未来而设计和规划,并增加了一些设施,包括一个公共屋顶花园、一个剧院、标志性楼梯和一套社区工作室和讲习班。正如Houben所解释的,新设计的一个核心目标是 “突出图书馆的社会聚会目的和它作为城市社会地标的强大存在”。设计方法平衡了密斯-凡-德-罗和金博士非常不同的遗产。

Honoring the Legacies of Mies and King. The transformation of MLKL brings a new, humanistic environment at all levels, designed and programmed for the future, and it adds facilities including a public roof garden, a theater, signature staircases and a suite of community studios and workshops. A central objective of the new design, as Houben explains, is “to highlight the library’s social gathering purpose and its strong presence as a social landmark in the city”. The design approach balances the very different legacies of Mies van der Rohe and Dr. King.

Mecanoo的广泛研究包括与Jack Bowman和Charles Cassell的对话,Jack Bowman是参与过原始建筑的建筑师,Charles Cassell是以金博士的名字命名图书馆的运动者。如果设计决策可以倾向于密斯的遗产或金博士的价值观,但不能两者兼得,胡本会选择金博士。”她说:”我们必须通过规划和向所有人开放建筑来纪念他。

Mecanoo’s extensive research included dialogue with Jack Bowman, an architect who worked on the original building, and Charles Cassell, who led the campaigner to name the library after Dr. King. If design decisions could favor either Mies’ legacy or Dr. King’s values, but not both, Houben would choose to go with Dr. King. “We must honor him by the programming, and by opening the building to everyone”, she says.

39,600平方米(426,000平方英尺)的复兴项目尊重原建筑的强大简洁性。它是密斯-凡德罗独特的直线型黑色玻璃钢美学的一个例子,这也是他在纽约和芝加哥的标志性摩天大楼的特点。MLKL的矩形外形有三个玻璃层,它们漂浮在黑色钢柱组成的柱廊后面的第一层(地面)之上。

The 39,600 m2 (426,000 sq ft) rejuvenation project respects the powerful simplicity of the original building. It is an example of Mies van der Rohe’s distinctive rectilinear black glass-and-steel aesthetic, which characterizes his iconic skyscrapers in New York and Chicago. The MLKL’s rectangular form has three glazed floors which float above a first (ground) floor recessed behind a colonnade of black steel columns.

当Houben第一次参观旧的MLKL时,她发现它 “在技术上不是一个好的建筑,也不是一个好的图书馆……所有的书都有日光,而所有的人都没有得到任何东西”。这些和其他基本的缺点在新的设计中被消除了。
一个温暖、社交和健康的环境。G街的主要入口通向大厅,即大堂。原有的特征得到了恢复。在唐-米勒(Don Miller)1986年创作的庆祝金博士生平的宏伟壁画下面,美卡诺公司将墙面凹进去,用垂直的木板条衬托。长椅台阶从地面升起,吸引人们坐下、聊天、阅读和观看。这一干预措施给大厅带来了温暖和更好的声学效果,从你进入图书馆的那一刻起,就提升了图书馆的社会层面。就像图书馆的所有功能一样,很明显哪些是密斯的原始设计,哪些是由Mecanoo设计的新设计。大厅里还有Nekisha Durrett的新壁画。

When Houben first visited the old MLKL, she found that it “was not a good building technically and it was not a good library… all the books got daylight and all the people didn’t get any at all”. These and other fundamental shortcomings are eliminated in the new design.
An environment that is warm, social, and healthy. The main G Street entrance leads into the Great Hall, the lobby. Original features are restored. Below a magnificent mural from 1986 by Don Miller, which celebrates Dr. King’s life, Mecanoo has recessed the wall and lined it with vertical wooden slats. Bench steps rise from floor level, drawing people to sit, chat, read and watch. The intervention brings warmth and better acoustics to the lobby and boosts the library’s social dimension from the moment you enter. As with all the library’s features, it is clear what was Mies’ original design, and what is new and designed by Mecanoo. The lobby also hosts new murals by Nekisha Durrett.

一个新的咖啡馆被大会堂的玻璃隔开,并延伸到图书馆东北角的一个外部区域。砖墙被削减了,因此它向人行道开放,将图书馆与城市连接起来。
Mecanoo引入了两个新的木制楼梯,其特点是具有雕塑般的流动性。楼梯很宽,铺有水磨石,绕着中间的空隙,从底层到新的五层,自然光从圆形天窗落下,曲线上升。楼梯体现了Mecanoo的有机风格,为垂直循环带来了柔和的扫荡节奏,它们还充当了社会连接器。此外,正如Houben所说。”楼梯的视觉吸引力鼓励人们使用它们,它们是乘坐电梯的一个健康选择。

A new café is partitioned by the glass from the Great Hall and extends to an outside area on the library’s north-east corner. Brick walls have been cut back so that it is open to the sidewalk, connecting the library with the city.
Mecanoo has introduced two new wood-lined staircases characterized by their sculptural fluidity. Stairs are wide, terrazzo surfaced, and curve up around a middle void from the lower ground floor to a new fifth floor, where natural light falls through circular skylights. The staircases exemplify Mecanoo’s organic styling, bring a soft, sweeping rhythm to vertical circulation, and they act as social connectors. Furthermore, as Houben comments: “The visual attraction of the staircases encourages people to use them, and they’re a healthy alternative to taking the elevator”.

一个提供实验室、技能培训、社区服务等的图书馆。 Mecanoo首次向图书馆用户开放了底层。它容纳了一系列提供资源和技能培训的设施。新的制造实验室是一套带有实践设备的工作室,正如Houben所评论的,”这是一个你可以制造噪音的空间!”。相比之下,工作室实验室的房间很安静,可以进行音乐、舞蹈和瑜伽等活动。

A library that offers laboratories, skills training, community services, and more. Mecanoo has opened the lower ground floor to library users for the first time. It hosts a wide range of facilities that offer resources and skills training. The new Fabrication Lab is a suite of workshops with hands-on equipment, and as Houben comments, “this is a space where you can make noise!”. In contrast, the Studio Lab’s rooms are quiet, enabling activities such as music, dance, and yoga.

从二楼往上,书架以前挡住了四面的窗户。这些都被清理掉了,让自然光深入到建筑中。在二楼,一个连续的阅读台沿着俯瞰G街的窗户延伸。它是220米(720英尺)长的 “阅读带 “的一部分,覆盖多个楼层。二楼现在有一个丰富多彩的新儿童图书馆,分为三个 “年龄区”,其中一个楼梯旁有一个滑梯。旧图书馆中缺少乐趣,但现在它被内置了,滑梯甚至引入了惊险。

From the second floor upwards, bookshelves had previously blocked the windows on all sides. These have been cleared away, allowing natural light deep into the building. On the second floor, a continuous reading counter stretches along the window overlooking G Street. It is part of a 220m (720ft)-long “Reading Ribbon” over multiple floors. The second floor now hosts a colorful new children’s library, divided into three “age zones”, and includes a slide beside one of the staircases. Fun was missing in the old library, but now it’s built in, and the slide even introduces thrill.

在三楼,最大的亮点是大阅览室。以前只有一层楼高,现在拆除了一个天花板,使它有了双倍的高度,在视觉上与上面的四楼阅览室相连。新的两层楼的天花板上悬挂着Xenobia Bailey的新装置,这位艺术家以其强烈的传统非洲和当代城市美学而闻名。

On the third floor, the highlight is the Grand Reading Room. Previously just one floor high, removal of a ceiling now gives it double-height, visually connecting into the fourth-floor reading room above it. A new installation by Xenobia Bailey hangs from the new two-story ceiling, an artist known for her strong traditional African and contemporary urban aesthetics.

华盛顿特区获得了一个新的礼堂和一个公共屋顶花园。 四楼现在有一个可容纳291人的大礼堂。这个双重高度的活动空间有温暖的木质墙面,墙角处有曲线,岸边的座位上升到一个全新的第五层。在那里,礼堂大厅与会议室和活动中心相邻,并向一个新的空中花园开放。新的楼层包含在一个梯形的玻璃亭子里,周围有一个悬臂式的屋顶为其提供庇护。亭子远离边缘,从街上看不到,从那里看,建筑的轮廓和几何形状与密斯的设计完全一样。

D.C. gains a new auditorium and a public roof garden. The fourth floor now features a major 291-capacity auditorium. This double-height event space has warm wood-lined walls which curve around the corners, and banked seating that rises into an entirely new fifth floor. There, the auditorium lobby is bordered by conference rooms and an Events Center, which opens into a new sky-garden. The new floor is contained within a trapezoid, glazed pavilion, sheltered by a roof cantilevering out around it. Set back from the edges, the pavilion is not visible from the street, from where the building’s profile and geometry look exactly as Mies designed it.

围绕着亭子的是一个新的屋顶花园。小路在棱角分明的花盆之间纵横交错,将生物多样性带入华盛顿的中心。这个隐蔽而公共的绿洲为每个人提供了宁静、接近自然和开放的天空。”屋顶是一片沙漠”,Houben评论道。”现在它变成了城市的公园”。

Surrounding the pavilion is a new roof garden. Paths crisscrossed between angular planters which bring biodiversity into the heart of Washington. This hidden yet public oasis offers everyone tranquility, proximity to nature, and an open sky. “The rooftop was a desert”, comments Houben. “Now it becomes a park for the city”.

密斯设计了一个被动的图书馆,可以坐在里面阅读,但重生的图书馆被设计成主动的,一个做事和开会的地方。它现在体现了金博士给国家带来的进步、包容和希望的精神。有机表面和柔和线条的引入与密斯的严格的硬表面直线性形成了强烈的对比,但它与原建筑产生了协同作用,而不是对立。

Mies had designed a passive library to sit and read in, but the reborn library is designed to be active, a place for doing and meeting. It now embodies the spirit of advancement, inclusivity, and hope that Dr. King brought to the nation. The introduction of organic surfaces and softer lines is a strong contrast to Mies’ strict hard-surfaced rectilinearity, but it creates synergy, not opposition, with the original building.

Architects: Mecanoo, OTJ Architects
Area: 39600 m²
Year: 2021
Photographs: Trent Bell, Robert Benson
City:WASHINGTON
Country:UNITED STATES

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