Mława 之家,波兰,James & Mau

该地块平坦,靠近小城Mława的中心,位于一个成熟的单户住宅区。虽然它是该地区最大的地块之一,但并不超过1000平方米。由于这个原因,周围的房子大多有两层。然而,业主出于预算和便于施工的原因,以及避免他们的小孩子在楼梯上爬上爬下,希望有一个单层的房子。

The plot, flat, is located close to the center of the small town of Mława in an established area of single-family houses. Although it is one of the largest plots of land in the area it does not exceed 1,000m2. For this reason, most of the surrounding houses have two floors. However, the owners wanted a one-story house for budget and ease of construction reasons as well as to avoid their small children climbing up and down the stairs.

另一个制约因素是使用当地的建筑技术,主要是砖和混凝土。住宅位于西边靠近入口的地方,以尽可能多地腾出东边现有的花园,花园保持完整,面积相对正方形。房子和土地周边之间的其余空间有4米的宽度,这是由后退条例规定的,这意味着比起花园,结果是一个不幸的先验绿色走廊。

Another constraint would be the use of local construction techniques, mainly brick and concrete. The dwelling is located to the west near the entrance to free up as much of the existing garden to the east as possible, which remains intact and relatively square in size. The rest of the space between the house and the perimeter of the land has a width of 4m defined by the setback regulation, which means that more than a garden, the result is an unfortunate a priori green corridor.

为了解决这个问题,地块周边的砖墙,按照法律规定只能达到2.2米的高度,转向土地内部,将绿色长廊分割成一连串的小花园庭院。此外,这些墙壁用砖头包裹着房屋的正面,甚至向房屋内部渗透,变成热粘土承重墙。后者将支持混凝土外壳,使房子的高度达到3.3米。这组内外墙在室内空间和花园庭院之间建立了直接的关系,通过互补的用途相互利用。

In order to solve that problem, the perimeter brick walls of the plot, which by law can only reach a height of 2.2 m, turn towards the interior of the land to divide the green long corridors into a succession of small garden patios. In addition, these walls wrap the facade of the house in brick and even penetrate towards the interior of the house turning into thermo-clay load-bearing walls. The latter will support the concrete shell that takes the height of the house up to 3.3m. This set of interior and exterior walls establish a direct relationship between the interior spaces and the garden-patios, using each other through complementary uses.

因此,即厨房有一个用于烧烤的露台,儿童的卧室被一个用于室外玩耍的露台所延伸,等等。在这种内部和外部的共生关系中,值得强调的是位于南立面东西两端的两个塔楼。它们给房子带来了城市的规模,并使之从较大的外部空间过渡到内部房间。它们有5.5米高,并有大孔来收集光线。随着时间的推移,这些空间将被装上玻璃,以便成为冬季花园和夏季露台,同时作为热缓冲器。这意味着它们将在进入室内之前对清洁空气进行预调温,并实现较低的能耗。它实现了双重的被动通风;在冬天有自然预热的空气,在夏天有冷却的空气。

So i.e. the kitchen has a terrace for barbecues, the children’s bedroom is extended by a terrace for outside playing, etc. Within this symbiotic relationship between interior and exterior, it is worth highlighting two towers that are located to both east and west ends of the south façade. They give an urban scale to the house and make the transition from the bigger outside space to the inner rooms. They are 5.5 m high and have large holes to collect light. In time these spaces are meant to be glazed in order to become winter gardens and summer terraces while acting as thermal buffers. This means they will pre-climatize the clean air before entering the interior and achieve a lower energy consumption. It enables double passive ventilation; in winter with naturally preheated air and in summer with cooled air.

 室内布局是由9米的最大可用宽度决定的,南北都有大的外墙。需要较少光线的卧室位于北部。同时,公共区域位于朝南的光线最充足的部分。在这两个区域之间,一个假的走廊沟通了所有的空间,但却消失了,因为它整合了公共区域。由于这种南北布局,东面和西面的外墙都没有放置窗户,因为那里很难控制阳光。

 The interior layout is determined by the maximum available width of 9m with large facades available both to north and south. The bedrooms that require less light are located in the northern part. Meanwhile, the common areas are in the most luminous part facing south. In between both areas a false corridor communicates all the spaces but disappears as such integrating common areas. Thanks to this north-south layout no windows were placed in east and west facades where sun control is difficult.

Architects: James & Mau
Area: 289 m²
Year: 2021
Photographs: Jakub Certowicz
Manufacturers: Cekobud, Prefabet, Windows-tech
Concept Design, Execution Project, Site Supervision:Jaime Gaztelu
Building Permit Project:Monika Moszczyńska
Visualisations:Diego Llorente
Structural Design:Abak Pracownia
Prefab Beton Structural Design:RAFAŁ MAREK CZYŻEWSKI
City:Mława
Country:Poland

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