Palicourea 之家,巴西,BLOCO Arquitetos

Palicourea之家位于戈亚斯州上帕拉伊索市São Jorge村的一个农村地区,直接位于São Miguel河谷前面的一座小山上,靠近Chapada dos Veadeiros国家公园的范围,插在该国第二大生物群落Cerrado,面积超过772,000平方英里,接近巴西的四分之一。塞拉多是世界上生物多样性最丰富的热带稀树草原。因此,整个项目是一个关于该地区居住方式的实验,考虑到项目的特殊性及其背景,以及人类和自然之间可持续和积极共存的可能性。

The Palicourea House is located in a rural area in the village of São Jorge, municipality of Alto Paraíso de Goiás, directly on a small hill in front of São Miguel river valley, close to the limits of Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, inserted in the country’s second-largest biome, the Cerrado, which covers more than 772,000 square miles, nearly a quarter of Brazil. The Cerrado is the world’s most biodiverse tropical savanna. Thus, the whole project is an experiment about a way to inhabit the region, considering the specificities of the program and its context as well as the possibilities of a sustainable and positive coexistence between humans and nature.

Palicourea之家由两座建筑组成:一座房子和一个小工作室。家庭成员之一是一名景观设计师,她从事塞拉多地区本土物种的工作,旨在保护和恢复该地区的生物群落的物种。工作室是她的家庭办公室,也将举办与她工作有关的艺术和教育活动。每座建筑都位于山的一侧,与山的最高点分开,彼此相距120米。内部空间被放置在不同的水平上,并与现有的地形相适应,略微悬空,以防止小型野生动物进入,尽量减少土地移动,并尽可能多地保留现有的树木和草木植被。一个楼梯和坡道系统连接着房子的内部和外部楼层。在工作室里,连接内部和外部楼层的楼梯被改造成一个露天看台。

The Palicourea House consists of two buildings: a house and a small studio. One of the family members is a landscape architect who works with native species from the Cerrado, aiming for the preservation and recovery of species from the region’s biome. The studio is her home office and it will also host artistic and educational activities related to her work. Each of the buildings is located on one side of the hill, separated from its highest point, 120 meters apart from each other. The internal spaces were placed at different levels and adapted to the existing topography, slightly suspended from the ground to prevent the entry of small wild animals, to minimize land movement, and to preserve as much of the existing trees and herbaceous vegetation as possible. A system of stairs and ramps connect the house’s internal and external levels. In the studio, the stairs that connect the internal and external levels are transformed into an open-air grandstand.

这两座建筑的结构系统由两个独立的部分组成:裸露的混凝土结构和实心砖墙–“核心”,以及胶合木(Glulam)屋顶。其目的是将当地劳动力和传统建筑材料与由重新造林的木材制成的大型轻质结构相结合,远程预制,并在现场组装。混凝土和砖的核心部分遵循一个网格,允许内部尺寸的不规则变化,以便于项目的分布。固定家具的一些部分被添加到它自己的结构中(如工作室和厨房的架子、看台和柜子,外部的炉子和房子的内部长凳)。木制的屋顶遵循了规则的结构模式。每个建筑的两个部分在结构上都是独立的,因此在施工的局部阶段不需要获得很高的精度来获得它们之间的完美 “配合”。

The structural system of both buildings is composed of two parts that were built independently: the exposed concrete structure and solid brick walls – the “core”- and the glued laminated wood (Glulam) roof. The aim was to combine local labor and traditional building materials with a large lightweight structure made from reforestation wood, remotely prefabricated, and assembled on site. The concrete and brick core follows a grid that allows for irregular variations in internal dimensions for the distribution of the program. Some parts of the fixed furniture were added to its own structure (such as shelves, grandstand and cabinets of the studio and kitchen, exterior stove, and internal bench of the house). The wooden roof follows a regular structural pattern. The two parts of each of the buildings are structurally independent so that it was not necessary to obtain a high level of precision in the local phase of the construction to obtain the perfect “fit” between them.

两栋建筑中的卧室、家庭办公室和浴室区域都被当作 “延长逗留区”,用坚实的混凝土板覆盖,在它们和木质屋顶之间划定了一个 “气垫”。这个空旷的区域也是一个开放的、自然通风的空间,促进其正下方的内部空间有更大的热舒适度,为大多数装置和设备的分布提供空间。社会生活空间,如房子的客厅和工作室的休息室,都配备了大面积的玻璃,滑动窗框,防虫网和木制滑动百叶,可以持续的自然通风和采光。因此,这些空间也是唯一的内部房间,其木质屋顶也是室内环境的屋顶。

The bedroom, home office, and bathroom areas in both buildings were treated as an “extended stay area” and were covered with solid concrete slabs that delimit an “air mattress” between them and the wooden roof. This empty area is also an open and naturally ventilated space that promotes greater thermal comfort for the internal spaces right below them, providing space for the distribution of most installations and equipment. The social living spaces, such as the living room of the house and the studio lounge, are equipped with large, glazed areas, sliding window frames, bug screens, and wooden sliding louvers that allow for constant natural ventilation and light. Therefore, these spaces are also the only internal rooms where the wooden roof is also the roof of the indoor environment.

两栋建筑中的卧室、家庭办公室和浴室区域都被当作 “延长逗留区”,用坚实的混凝土板覆盖,在它们和木质屋顶之间划定了一个 “气垫”。这个空旷的区域也是一个开放的、自然通风的空间,促进其正下方的内部空间有更大的热舒适度,为大多数装置和设备的分布提供空间。社会生活空间,如房子的客厅和工作室的休息室,都配备了大面积的玻璃,滑动窗框,防虫网和木制滑动百叶,可以持续的自然通风和采光。因此,这些空间也是唯一的内部房间,其木质屋顶也是室内环境的屋顶。

The buildings are equipped with “E.S.S.” photovoltaic energy systems, which means that it works as an “off-grid” system that is also connected to the supply network. This way, when the batteries are charged and when the user loads are supplied, it “returns” the excess energy to the network. The roofs of the buildings have a single slope that follows the general topography of each side of the hill. They are interrupted by lines of gutters to collect rainwater. This water is filtered and stored in small tanks at the lowest points of the lot to be periodically pumped by pumps powered by photovoltaic energy to a central reservoir located at the highest point of the lot with the storage capacity of 40.000 liters of rainwater. The Cerrado is limited to two dominant seasons throughout the year, wet and dry. Therefore, the idea is to use rainwater to minimize the use of water from the public supply system throughout the year, mainly during the dry season. Sewage from sanitary basins and kitchen sinks is processed and treated in underground eco-stubs before passing to the soil infiltration tanks.

胶合板屋顶并不直接接触建筑物的混凝土和砖石结构核心。然而,这两个结构是通过大的固定玻璃板连接的,这些玻璃板是房屋客厅和工作室工作空间的门窗的一部分。由于这个原因,必须保证木结构的完全稳定,以抵御可能由风引起的最终变形和移动。因此,该结构建立在三角形的地基上,柱子和它们的稳定拉杆被固定在那里。这些块状物也接受来自排水沟的雨水,并有不同程度的植入,以适应建造工作室和房子的地形的自然延伸。因此,两座建筑的16根木柱(房子里有10根柱子,工作室里有6根柱子)都有不同的长度。

The Glulam roofs do not directly touch the concrete and masonry structural core of the buildings. However, both structures are connected through big fixed glass panels that are part of the windows and doors of the house´s living room and the studio´s working space. For this reason, it was essential that the complete stability of the wooden structure was guaranteed against eventual deformations and movements that could be caused by winds. Therefore, the structure rests on triangular foundation blocks where the pillars and their stabilization tie- rods are anchored. These blocks also receive rainwater from the gutters and have different levels of implantation adapted to the natural stretches of the topography where the studio and the house were built. Therefore, each of the 16 wooden pillars of the two buildings (10 pillars in the house and 6 pillars in the studio) have different lengths.

Architects: BLOCO Arquitetos
Area: 650 m²
Year: 2021
Photographs: Joana França
Project Managment: Pórtico Empreendimentos
Photovoltaic System: Fonte Solar
Authors:Daniel Mangabeira, Henrique Coutinho e Matheus Seco
General Coordination:Giovanni Cristofaro
Project Team:Victor Machado, Marina Lira e Julia Huff
Co Authors:Mariana Siqueira – Jardins do Cerrado
Diagrams / Drawings:Luís Alcântara e Marcos Cambui
Concrete Structure:André Torres
Vegetation Consultant:Mariana Siqueira – Jardins do Cerrado
Management:Gustavo Stival
Construction Work:Elson Ferreira
Project Execution:Ita Construtora
Water And Sewage System:Fluxus
City:São Jorge
Country:Brazil

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