Xingu 檐篷 ,巴西, Estúdio Gustavo Utrabo

背景。巴西原住民和风景区的近代史充满了暴力。当第一批欧洲定居者于1500年到达时,现在的巴西估计有1100万土著人居住在大约2000个同类的定居点。在入侵的第一个世纪后,90%的人口被消灭了,主要是由于殖民者带来的疾病,如流感、麻疹和天花。在随后的几个世纪里,又有成千上万的人死于奴役。今天,巴西的原住民文化在当前的政治和经济环境下,继续他们每天的斗争,以保持生命和保护他们的领土。因此,该项目不仅是在政治斗争和抵抗的背景下进行的,而且是以不同的方式与原住民社区发生关系,因为今天的村庄及其居民已经不再符合现代性的旧有田园诗般的愿景了。该建筑项目提出了另一种看待和联系其景观和领土的方式,通过支持其同心的领土配置,建立一个距离,使用当地和工业材料,揭示时间的流逝和开放自己,通过重新获得社区需要的多用途支持。为了响应这个项目的当地背景,新古岛土著公园的第一个树冠是为Kisêdjê定居点建造的,但其他定居点也将能够体现其结构,这代表了社区权利的重要恢复和在不断变化的文化中的适应。

Context. The recent history of Brazil’s indigenous peoples and landscapes has been marked by violence. When the first European settlers arrived in 1500, what is now Brazil was inhabited by an estimated number of 11 million indigenous people in roughly 2,000 kindred settlements. After the first century of the invasion, 90% of that population had been wiped out, mainly by diseases such as flu, measles and smallpox, brought by the colonizers. In the following centuries, thousands more died in slavery. Today, Brazil’s indigenous cultures continue their daily struggle to stay alive and preserve their territories under to the current political and economic circumstances. Due to that, the project was settled, not only in a context of political struggle and resistance, but of a different way of relating with indigenous communities, since today’s villages and its inhabitants don’t match anymore with the old idyllic visions of modernity anymore. The architectural project proposes another way of seeing and relating to its landscape and territory, by supporting its concentric territorial configuration, establishing a distance, using local and industrial materials, revealing the passage of time and opening itself, by reclaiming a multipurpose support needed by the community. In response to the local context of this project, the first canopy for the Xingu Indigenous Park was built for the Kisêdjê Settlement, but other settlements will be able to embody its structure, which represents an important reclamation of the community’s rights and adaptation in an ever- changing culture.

目标。该项目旨在建立一个不同文化和当前建设进程之间的交流渠道。关于这一点,我们的意图不是复制当地文化,而是通过差异化鼓励对话。该项目作为一个亲戚或远方的邻居,作为一个模块化的系统,可以根据公园里每个社区的情况进行复制、挪用和改变。考虑到原住民的流动性,该建筑系统通过当地制造的木材结构为人们提供了灵活和多用途的空间,可以轻松地组装、扩大、缩小和迁移。天幕代表了这种关系的一个重要想象。它的目的是撑起天空,建立一个长廊,拥抱人们。与原来的天幕不同的是,该提案通过对称性、排列、规模和第一座庇护所的类型向周围开放。在这个意义上,阳台是内部和外部之间相遇的装置。在奥卡中,阴影有重量–它包围并保护它的居住者。在这里,在另一种意义上,影子有另一种重量–它有可能在里面和外面,看到和被看到,留在里面和在外面的人在一起。正是通过在影子里看到,人和环境之间的另一种关系才成为可能。在新古村的 “雨篷 “中,影子使阳台成为可能,使调解成为可能,使人们与社区和我们的森林有了另一种关系。

Objectives. The project aims to establish a channel of exchange between different cultures and processes of building in the present. Regarding that, the intention is not to replicate the local culture but to encourage dialogue through differentiation. The project functions as a relative, or a distant neighbor, built as a modular system possible to be replicated, appropriated and changed according to each community in the Park. The constructive system conforms flexible and multipurpose spaces for the people through a locally-manufactured timber structure which can be easily assembled, enlarged, shrunk and displaced, bearing in mind the mobility of the indigenous peoples. The Canopy represents an important imaginary of this relation. It aims to hold the sky, to build a veranda and to embrace the people. Different from the closeness of the original ocas, the proposal opens to its surroundings through symmetry, alignment, scale, and the typology of the first shelters. The veranda, in this sense, is the device of the encounter between inside and outside. In the oca the shadow has weight – it encloses and protects its dwellers. Here, on the other sense, the shadow has another weight – it is possible to be inside and outside, to see and to be seen, to stay in and to be with someone on the outside. It is through seeing in the shadow that another relation between people and the environment is possible. In the Canopies for the Xingu villages, the shadow allows the veranda, which allows mediation, which allows another relation with the community and our forests.

表现。社区的迁移和最近定居点的建设对于维护其居民的健康至关重要,因为他们正在逃离公园周围的大豆种植园中滥用杀虫剂造成的有害影响。与客户–ISA(社会生态研究所)–这个与社会权利、原住民权利和环境相妥协的非政府组织的接触,代表了这个过程中的一个关键角色和无形的部分,通过与当地社区、其生活方式和领土的对话,建立了扩大建筑领域所需的调解。

Performance. The community’s displacement and the construction of the recent settlements was vital for maintaining the health of its inhabitants, who are fleeing the harmful effects caused by the indiscriminate use of pesticides in the soy plantations that surround the park. The engagement with the client – ISA (Socioambiental Institute) -, a Ngo compromised with social rights, indigenous rights and the environment, represents a key role and invisible part of the process by establishing the mediation needed to expand the architectural field through dialogue with the local community, its way of living and territory.

基于建筑学、当地建筑商和祖先的知识之间的讨论,新宫土著公园的雨篷打算与没有财产和没有所有者的文化联系起来,它开发了其特定的建筑解决方案,如低维护元素的组合,原材料的使用,并通过在其中间保持一个同心的空间,将社区聚集在一起进行集体活动。墙壁和内部隔断是根据居民的需要和每个村庄的用途而被挪用和改造的。不仅是经济上的限制导致了更简单的建筑解决方案,而且在制作过程中与现场的关系也很有限。关于施工过程的说明性模型和图纸被送到村庄,以促进执行过程。由于第一个天幕的成功,另外两个结构是为新宫土著公园的周边社区制作的,以促进和加强当地文化。

Based on discussions between architecture, local builders and ancestral knowledge, the Canopies for the Xingu Indigenous Park intend to relate with a culture without property and without owner, which developed its specific architectonic solutions, such as the assemblage of low maintenance elements, the use of raw materials, and by keeping a concentric space in its middle, to gather the community in collective activities. The walls and internal partitions were appropriated and transformed according to the residents needs and the uses of each village. Not only economical restrictions lead to a simpler architectonic solution, but also the limited relation with the site during its making. Explanatory models and drawings about the construction process were sent to the village to facilitate the execution process. Due to the success of the first canopy, other two structures were made for the surrounding communities of the Xingu Indigenous Park to contribute and strengthen the local culture.

Architects: Estúdio Gustavo Utrabo
Area : 368 m²
Year : 2019
Architect In Charge : Gustavo Utrabo
Collaborators : Beatriz Rocha
Client : ISA (Instituto Socioambiental)
Structural Design : ITA Construtora
Country : Brazil